Union Africana - Conceptos

Publicado en 'Actualidad Mundial' por luispardo, 12 Jun 2010.





  1. luispardo

    luispardo Suspendido

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    The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other official languages) is an intergovernmental organization consisting of 53 African states. Established on 9 July 2002,[4] the AU was formed as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Overview

    Among the objectives of the AU's leading institutions, are to accelerate the political and socio-economic integration of the continent; to promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples; to achieve peace and security in Africa; and to promote democratic institutions, good governance and human rights.
    The African Union is made up of both political and administrative bodies. The highest decision-making organ of the African Union is the Assembly, made up of all the heads of state or government of member states of the AU. The Assembly is currently chaired by Bingu wa Mutharika, leader of Malawi, elected at the tenth ordinary meeting of the Assembly in January 2009. The AU also has a representative body, the Pan African Parliament, which consists of 265 members elected by the national parliaments of the AU member states. The current president of the Pan African Parliament is Idriss Ndele Moussa.
    Other political institutions of the AU include the Executive Council, made up of foreign ministers, which prepares decisions for the Assembly; the Permanent Representatives Committee, made up of the ambassadors to Addis Ababa of AU member states; and the Economic, Social, and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC), a civil society consultative body.
    The AU Commission, the secretariat to the political structures, is chaired by Jean Ping of Gabon.
    The main administrative capital of the African Union is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, where the African Union Commission is headquartered. Other AU structures are hosted by different member states: for example, the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights is based in Banjul, The Gambia; and the NEPAD and APRM Secretariats as well as the Pan-African Parliament are in Midrand, South Africa.
    The AU covers the entire continent except for Spanish North Africa and Morocco, as that state opposes the membership of Western Sahara as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. However, Morocco has a special status within the AU and benefits from the services available to all AU states from the institutions of the AU, such as the African Development Bank. Moroccan delegates also participate at important AU functions, and negotiations continue to try to resolve the conflict with the Polisario Front in Tindouf, Algeria and parts of Western Sahara.
    The AU's first military intervention in a member state was the May 2003 deployment of a peacekeeping force of soldiers from South Africa, Ethiopia, and Mozambique to Burundi to oversee the implementation of the various agreements. AU troops were also deployed in Sudan for peacekeeping in the Darfur conflict, before the mission was handed over to the United Nations on 1 January 2008 UNAMID. The AU has also sent a peacekeeping mission to Somalia, of which the peacekeeping troops are from Uganda and Burundi.
    The AU has adopted a number of important new documents establishing norms at continental level, to supplement those already in force when it was created. These include the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption (2003) and the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance (2007), as well as the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and its associated Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance.[5]



     


  2. luispardo

    luispardo Suspendido

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  3. luispardo

    luispardo Suspendido

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  4. luispardo

    luispardo Suspendido

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    [editar] Miembros supendidos


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    Map of the African Union with suspended states highlighted in light green. ​


    • [​IMG] Eritrea - retiró a "sus embajadores ante la Unión Africana" el 20 de noviembre de 2009. Esto sucedió después que la Unión Africana pidió al Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas imponer sanciones en respuesta al supuesto apoyo de los islamistas somalíes que intentan derrocar al Gobierno Federal de Transición, el Gobierno internacionalmente reconocido de Somalia (que representa a Somalia en la Unión Africana).[2] El 22 de diciembre de 2009, el Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas aprobó la Resolución 1907, que impuso un embargo de armas a Eritrea, la prohibición de viajar a los líderes de Eritrea, y la congelación de activos a los funcionarios de Eritrea. Eritrea criticó fuertemente la resolución.


    [​IMG] Níger - suspendido luego del Golpe de Estado de 2010[6
     
  5. luispardo

    luispardo Suspendido

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    Organisations of the AU


    The African Union has a number of official bodies:
    Pan-African Parliament (PAP) To become the highest legislative body of the African Union. The seat of the PAP is at Midrand, South Africa. The Parliament is composed of 265 elected representatives from all 53 AU states, and intended to provide popular and civil-society participation in the processes of democratic governance. The current President of the Pan African Parliament is Hon. Dr. Idriss Ndele Moussa of Chad. Assembly of the African Union Composed of heads of state and heads of government of AU states, the Assembly is currently the supreme governing body of the African Union. It is gradually devolving some of its decision-making powers to the Pan African Parliament. It meets once a year and makes its decisions by consensus or by a two-thirds majority. The current chair of the AU is President Bingu wa Mutharika. African Union Authority The secretariat of the African Union, composed of ten commissioners and supporting staff and headquartered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In a similar fashion to its European counterpart, the European Commission, it is responsible for the administration and co-ordination of the AU's activities and meetings. African Court of Justice The Constitutive Act provides for a Court of Justice to rule on disputes over interpretation of AU treaties. A protocol to set up the Court of Justice was adopted in 2003 and entered into force in 2009. It is likely to be superseded by a protocol creating a Court of Justice and Human Rights, which will incorporate the already established African Court of Justice and Human and Peoples' Rights (see below) and have two chambers—one for general legal matters and one for rulings on the human rights treaties. Executive CouncilComposed of ministers designated by the governments of member states. It decides on matters such as foreign trade, social security, food, agriculture and communications, is accountable to the Assembly, and prepares material for the Assembly to discuss and approve. Permanent Representatives' CommitteeConsisting of nominated permanent representatives of member states, the Committee prepares the work for the Executive Council, similar the role of the Committee of Permanent Representatives in the European Union. Peace and Security Council (PSC)Proposed at the Lusaka Summit in 2001 and established in 2004 under a protocol to the Constitutive Act adopted by the AU Assembly in July 2002. The protocol defines the PSC as a collective security and early warning arrangement to facilitate timely and effective response to conflict and crisis situations in Africa. Other responsibilities conferred to the PSC by the protocol include prevention, management and resolution of conflicts, post-conflict peace building and developing common defence policies. The PSC has fifteen members elected on a regional basis by the Assembly. Similar in intent and operation to the United Nations Security Council. Economic, Social and Cultural CouncilAn advisory organ composed of professional and civic representatives, similar to the European Economic and Social Committee. The chair of ECOSOCC, elected in 2008, is Cameroonian lawyer Akere Muna of the Pan-African Lawyers Union (PALU). Specialised Technical CommitteesBoth the Abuja Treaty and the Constitutive Act provide for Specialised Technical Committees to be established made up of African ministers to advise the Assembly. In practice, they have never been set up. The ten proposed themes are: Rural Economy and Agricultural Matters; Monetary and Financial Affairs; Trade, Customs, and Immigration; Industry, Science and Technology; Energy, Natural Resources, and Environment; Transport, Communications, and Tourism; Health; Labour, and Social Affairs; Education, Culture, and Human Resources. Financial institutions
    These institutions have not yet been established, however, the Steering Committees working on their founding have been constituted. Eventually, the AU aims to have a single currency (the Afro).
    Human rights The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, in existence since 1986, is established under the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (the African Charter) rather than the Constitutive Act of the African Union. It is the premier African human rights body, with responsibility for monitoring and promoting compliance with the African Charter. The African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights was established in 2006 to supplement the work of the Commission, following the entry into force of a protocol to the African Charter providing for its creation. It is planned that the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights will be merged with the African Court of Justice (see above). [edit] Role of the diaspora


    The Constitutive Act of the AU declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our Continent, in the building of the African Union". The African Union Government has defined the African diaspora as "consisting of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union".[17]
    [edit] Current issues

    The AU faces many challenges, including health issues such as combating malaria and the AIDS/HIV epidemic; political issues such as confronting undemocratic regimes and mediating in the many civil wars; economic issues such as improving the standard of living of millions of impoverished, uneducated Africans; ecological issues such as dealing with recurring famines, desertification, and lack of ecological sustainability; as well as the legal issues regarding Western Sahara.
     
  6. luispardo

    luispardo Suspendido

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    [edit] Union Government

    The principal topic for debate at the July 2007 AU summit held in Accra, Ghana, was the creation of a Union Government,[18] with the aim of moving towards a United States of Africa. A study on the Union Government was adopted in late 2006,[19] and proposes various options for "completing" the African Union project. There are divisions among African states on the proposals, with some (notably Libya) following a maximalist view leading to a common government with an AU army; and others (especially the southern African states) supporting rather a strengthening of the existing structures, with some reforms to deal with administrative and political challenges in making the AU Commission and other bodies truly effective.[20]
    Following a heated debate in Accra, the Assembly of Heads of State and Government agreed in the form of a declaration to review the state of affairs of the AU with a view to determining its readiness towards a Union Government.[21] In particular, the Assembly agreed to:

    • Accelerate the economic and political integration of the African continent, including the formation of a Union Government of Africa;
    • Conduct an audit of the institutions and organs of the AU; review the relationship between the AU and the RECs; find ways to strengthen the AU and elaborate a timeframe to establish a Union Government of Africa.
    The declaration lastly noted the ‘importance of involving the African peoples, including Africans in the Diaspora, in the processes leading to the formation of the Union Government.’
    Following this decision, a panel of eminent persons was set up to conduct the ‘audit review’. The review team began its work on 1 September 2007. The review was presented to the Assembly of Heads of State and Government at the January 2008 summit in Addis Ababa. No final decision was taken on the recommendations, however, and a committee of ten heads of state was appointed to consider the review and report back to the July 2008 summit to be held in Egypt.[22] At the July 2008 summit, a decision was once again deferred, for a 'final' debate at the January 2009 summit to be held in Addis Ababa.
    [edit] Role of Regional Economic Communities

    One of the key debates in relation to the achievement of greater continental integration is the relative priority that should be given to integration of the continent as a unit in itself or to integration of the sub-regions. The 1980 Lagos Plan of Action for the Development of Africa and the 1991 treaty to establish the African Economic Community (also referred to as the Abuja Treaty), proposed the creation of Regional Economic Communities (RECs) as the basis for African integration, with a timetable for regional and then continental integration to follow.[23]
    Currently, there are eight RECs recognised by the AU, each established under a separate regional treaty. They are:

    The membership of many of the communities overlaps, and their rationalisation has been under discussion for several years – and formed the theme of the 2006 Banjul summit. At the July 2007 Accra summit the Assembly finally decided to adopt a Protocol on Relations between the African Union and the Regional Economic Communities.[24] This protocol is intended to facilitate the harmonisation of policies and ensure compliance with the Abuja Treaty and Lagos Plan of Action time frames.

    ----- mensaje añadido, 12-jun-2010 a las 19:11 -----

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  7. clod20

    clod20 Miembro de plata

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    por favor en español , este es un foro en español.
     
  8. Dark Zero

    Dark Zero Miembro de honor

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    modifica la info o resumela.... muy interesante, pero todos son debiles, asi que no tendrian mucho poder que digamos a menos que se industrialice tipo China....
     
  9. luispardo

    luispardo Suspendido

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    Esa es la idea, su industrializacion y manejarse como un solo mercado, Sudafrica Egipto, Nigeria, Algeria son grandes economicas mundiales, y en base a ella se da la union, el norte de Africa llamado Magreb que es arabe no es pobre como lo son los paises que viven al sur de Sahara.

    Viste el Mundial el Sudafrica, estan saliendo adelante con mucha fuerza, este siglo XXI.



    Puesto Pais PBI

    26 South Africa $ 495,100,000,000 2009 est.

    27 Egypt $ 471,200,000,000 2009 est.

    32 Nigeria $ 357,200,000,000 2009 est.

    48 Algeria $ 239,600,000,000 2009 est.


    Estos paises son base fundamental de la Union Africana, son los que mas empujan la union continental, Libia es el mas activo, con un percapita altisimo para niveles africanos, el continente africano se pone finalmente de pie por si mismo.

    ----- mensaje añadido, 13-jun-2010 a las 13:04 -----

    El castellano(que es lo que hablamos en Peru), no es un idioma oficial en Africa, la informacion en castellano es limitada, entonces trata de leer, si no entiendes, trata de traducirlo con el Google(es muy bueno).

    Este tipo de informacion es buena si pueeds encontrar informacion de peso sobre el tema subela por favor, gracias.
     
    Última edición: 13 Jun 2010
  10. Midnightblue

    Midnightblue Miembro de bronce

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    Si crecen economicamente, dudo q disminuya la pobreza, siempre las ganancias van solo para unos cuantos =/
     
  11. luispardo

    luispardo Suspendido

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    La pobreza en Sudafrica ha disminuido considerablemente. Busca los datos de hace 10 años y busca los datos de ahora.

    Ojo si te focalizas en unos cuantos africanos que van remal, no vas a tener un objetivo analisis del continente entero de los que son miembros mas de 50 paises.

    Si 10 van mal, mas de 40 van bien,

    No podria decir que Sudamerica nada remal solo por mirar a Bolivia o Paraguay, eso seria mesquino, ignorar la calidad de vida en uruguay, argentina chile, y como esta mejorando en venezuela peru colombia brasil...:hi:
     
  12. mexican boy

    mexican boy Miembro de bronce

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    De hecho sudafrica es muy bonito y tiene un gran urbanismo,si no me creen chequen en su GSV ciudad del cabo,sudafrica para que vean que luce mejor que cualquier ciudad latinoamericana,ademas de que sudafrica tiene un ingreso percapita superior que la mayoria de los paises latinoamericanos,no se dejen engañar por los medios de comunicacion!,usen GSV para conocer sudafrica,es hermoso!
     
  13. Sciffo

    Sciffo Miembro de bronce

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    Aun asi si hubieras puesto el articulo en Castellano, seria muy largo de seguir. Trata de resumirlo y de dar TU propio punto de vista.
    Por cierto, ¿Por que Marrucos esta excluido?
     
  14. Julacho

    Julacho Suspendido

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    Marruecos tiene colonizado al Sahara Occidental, y la ONU y la Union Africana apoyan la independencia de ese pais.

    EL Sahara Occidental se hizo pais cuando los espanoles dejaron sus colonias de africa del norte, pero luego fue invadido por marruecos, son diferentes pueblos, pero marruecos le hace imperialismo, por eso decidio separarse de la Union, por que era antidemocratico.

    Los demas estan castigados por las mismas razones.

    Ojo la democracia tiene varias interpretaciones, la de USA es diferente a la canadiense, a la irani o la alemana.

    ----- mensaje añadido, 13-jun-2010 a las 20:15 -----

    Sudafrica - Gautrain







     
  15. ArsenaL

    ArsenaL Miembro diamante

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    no hay dida de que sudafrica es el mas desarrollado de sudafrica... ya mejor ke algunos paises sudamericanos... en ese caso ya pasaron a paises tercermundistas dejando el llamado cuartomundo... en fin...
     
  16. Dark Zero

    Dark Zero Miembro de honor

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    JAJJAAJAJ ME HICISTE MI DIA :risota::risota::risota::risota::risota::risota::risota:
     
  17. ArsenaL

    ArsenaL Miembro diamante

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    jajaja... se me fue bro... con esto del mundial y todo...

    corrijo... sudafrica es el pais mas desarrollado de AFRICA... xD!!

    mil disculpas... :biggrin:
     
  18. nandu

    nandu Miembro maestro

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    :D!
    todo depende...como quieras medir el desarrollo
    medido en Pib percapita en paridad de poder adquisitivo no es sudafrica.

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    2008
    azul> sobre US$10.500
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    Última edición: 14 Jun 2010
  19. mexican boy

    mexican boy Miembro de bronce

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    sudafrica no es el mas desarrollado de africa,pero si es la potencia africana,los paises que son mas desarrollados son muy pequeños.

    No se como sea en peru,pero en mexico la cobertura que televisa esta dando de sudafrica me parece horrorosa,en vez de poner lo bonito de sudafrica solo pone a gente pobre lo que refuerza estereotipos,televisa esta desperdiciando la oportunidad de conocer una excelente cultura.
    Lo que mas respeto de los sudafricanos es lo bien que nos trataron,no abuchearon el himno nacional(como lo hacen en muchos paises),no nos intentaron agredir(como sucede en centroamerica),no nos gritaron insultos raciales,al acabar el partido vi que se despidieron de mano de los aficionados mexicanos y pasaron reportajes de que ambas aficiones celebraron(y se embriagaron) juntos,en un pais latinoamericano no hubiera sucedido lo mismo.Yo no me imagino a un argentino tratando respetuosamente a un mexicano en buenos aires,de jugar ahi tendriamos que salir escoltados por la policia y nos dirian todo tipo de "linduras".Los sudafricanos demostraron tener mas educacion que los latinoamericanos.
     
  20. luispardo

    luispardo Suspendido

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    Mexico esta dejando pasar una oportunidad de oro de aliarse con los paises emergentes, que son al final los que van a dominar el siglo 21, sudafrica es uno de ellos.

    Te cuento un par de anecdotas que vivi de cerca, para viajar al continente africano desde sudamerica tenias que viajar a USA o Europa y despues hacer coneccion al Africa, una ridicula situacion a pesar que Africa y Sudamerica estan al lado de la otra.

    Bueno cuando entra Lula se empezo con fuerza la cooperacion sur-sur, por ejemplo el Peru ahora mismo asesora paises africanos en temas de educacion y salud, y es ayuda directa que no pasa por las mafias de las ONGs, donde el 90% del dinero se queda en los salarios de los europeos y norteamericanos.

    Otro ejemplo es el de brasil, los brasileros fueron al africa y les dijeron, necesitas ayuda contra el sida, y yo tengo el metodo, aqui esta la tecnologia, y por 200 millones de dolares donados por el brasil construyeron un laboratorio de retrovirales, USA llega 15 mil millones metidos en lucha contra el sida en africa y lo unico que hacen es comprarse a si mismos medicamentos que luego dejan ue expiren, cuando llega a la mano del enfermo ya no sirven, osea ese dinero se quedo en el bolsillo del laboratorio y los gordos de las ONGs. En cambio el brasil con 200 millones ha hecho mucho mas, les ha dado libertad, los tecnicos que producen esa medicina son africanos, las cadenas de distribucion son africanas.

    La cooperacion Sur-Sur los esta ayudando muchisimo, brasil, argentina venezuela peru, ayudan un monton en cooperacion de tecnologia agropecuaria en paises africanos, osea no les donas comida, no les regalas pescado, les enseñas a pescar, les haces trasnferencia de tecnologia, y a nosotros en sudamerica nos ven como sus iguales y no los esclavistas tiranos.

    Recuerdas los BRICS?

    Olimpiadas de beiging???

    Olimpiadas en brasil?

    Futbol Sudafrica?

    Olimpiadas de invierno sochi rusia???

    Mundial futbol brasil???

    quien crees es el men del siglo 21?

    :hi:

    mexico se debe meter de lleno con sus hermanos emergentes, por que les conviene muchisimo, hace rato deberia buscar meterse a los brics...:yeah:

    ----- mensaje añadido, 14-jun-2010 a las 21:33 -----

    Rabat - Marruecos











     
    Última edición: 14 Jun 2010